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Romania country profile

28 August 2006
by eub2 -- last modified 13 July 2012

Romania, in southeast Europe, is mountainous in the north while the main feature in the south is the vast Danube valley. Romania became a member state of the European Union on 1 January 2007.





Romania, in southeast Europe, is mountainous in the north while the main feature in the south is the vast Danube valley. The river forms a delta as it approaches the Black Sea, which is a wildlife reserve for countless native and migratory birds.

The Romanian parliament consists of two chambers, the Senat (Senate), which has 140 members, and the Camera Deputaţilor (Chamber of Deputies), which has 345 members. The members of both chambers are chosen in elections held every four years.

Ethnically, the population is 90% Romanian and 7% Hungarian. The Romanian language, like a number of others in southern Europe, is directly descended from Latin, although Romania is separated from other Romance-language countries by Slav speakers. Romania has considerable natural resources – oil, natural gas, coal, iron, copper and bauxite. Metal-working, petrochemicals and mechanical engineering are the main industries.


Romanian specialities include grilled meatballs, pork stew with garlic and onions and doughnuts made with cream and cheese.

The spine-chilling tale of Dracula is based on the 15th century Romanian Count Vlad Dracul whose son was famous in wartime for impaling captured enemies. Well-known Romanians include the writer Eugene Ionesco, the gymnast Nadia Comaneci and the composer George Enesco.

Official name: Romania

Area (km2): 237 500

Population: 21.85 million (July 2011 est.)

Capital: Bucharest

National holiday: 01 December

Currency: Romanian Leu

Date of joining: 01 January 2007

Head of state: Traian Basescu; since 2004, reelected in December 2009

Head of government: Prime Minister Victor-Viorel Ponta, since 7 May 2012

GDP (millions €): 137 035.0 (2008); 125 701.8 (forecast for 2009)

GDP per capita in PPS: € 11 500 (2008); € 10 700 (forecast for 2009)

Real growth rate of GDP: 1.5% (2011 est.); -1.3% (2010 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.1% (2011 est.); 6.9% (2010 est.)

National debt as % of GDP: 38.6% (2011 est.); 37.8% (2010 est.)

Inflation: 3.1% (2011 est.)

Public deficit/surplus as % of GDP: -4.2% (2011 est.)

Source: Eurostat


Head of State:


Foreign Minister:



Map of Romania



Source: European Commission, Spanish EU Presidency, World Factbook



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