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Luxembourg country profile

27 August 2006
by eub2 -- last modified 02 July 2012

The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a small country surrounded by Belgium, France and Germany. Luxembourg is one of the founding countries of the European Community, now the EU.


Großherzogtum Luxemburg / Grand-Duché de Luxembourg / Lëtzebuerg

The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a small country surrounded by Belgium, France and Germany, and its history has been inextricably linked with that of its larger neighbours. It is largely made up of rolling hills and forests.

Luxembourg has been under the control of many states and ruling houses in its long history, but it has been a separate, if not always autonomous, political unit since the 10th century. Nowadays, Luxembourg is a hereditary Grand Duchy with a unicameral parliamentary system.

Letzeburgesch, the national language, is akin to German. German is the first foreign language for most Luxembourgers and is used in the media. French is the administrative language.

The economic structure of Luxembourg is based mainly in banking, insurance, and the steel industry. Agriculture and wine production are also important.

Many of Luxembourg's speciality dishes are appropriate to forest areas: jugged hare and Ardennes ham. Other local dishes include trout and pike from the rivers.

Luxembourg shares the Moselle valley with Germany and the local white wines are well known. Like other northern European countries, Luxembourg is also known for its beers.

Official name: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

Area (km2): 2 586

Population: 509,074 (July 2011 est.)

Capital: Luxembourg

National holiday: 23 June

Currency: Euro (€)

Date of joining: 23 July 1952

Head of state: Henri I, Grand Duke of Luxembourg

Head of government: Jean Claude Juncker, since January 1995. Belonging to the Christian-Social Party (CSV), he presides over a coalition government with the socialists (LSAP)

GDP (millions €): 36 662.2 (2008); 36 264.7 (forecast for 2009)

GDP per capita in PPS: € 63 500 (2008); € 61 300 (forecast for 2009)

Real growth rate of GDP: 3.6% (2011 est.); 3.5% (2010 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.9% (2011 est.)

National debt as % of GDP: 20.4% (2011 est.)

Inflation: 3.4% (2011 est.)

Public deficit/surplus as % of GDP: -1.1% (2011 est.)

Source: Eurostat


Head of Government:

Foreign Minister:



Map of Luxembourg



Source: European Commission, Spanish EU Presidency


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