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Italy in the European Union
Based on an analytical evaluation of both the weaknesses and strengths of the Italian political system, "Italy in the European Union" is the first book to offer a detailed and comprehensive description of Italy's contribution to European Union policy-making across a wide range of policies. Combining empirical investigation and theoretical analysis, it functions on two levels as a nuanced picture of Italy's role in the EU and as a study of the EU as it has been transformed by subsequent waves of enlargement.

Competition in Energy Markets: Law and Regulation in the European Union
The new edition of this book gives a comprehensive update and analysis of European law as it affects competition in EU energy markets, especially oil, gas and electricity. This includes all relevant directives, regulations, Treaty provisions (including the energy chapter in the draft EU Constitution), case law and decisions of the ECJ, the CFI and the European Commission competition authorities. Appropriate consideration is also given to the new developments in EU legal relations with Norway, Switzerland and other neighbouring countries. In this edition a special chapter examines the growing impact of environmental rules on the energy sector, especially with respect to renewable energy, nuclear power and the EU emissions trading scheme. A new section on the competition law framework explains and describes in detail the growing impact of competition law instruments such as merger control, state aid and antitrust in this sector. The new edition also explains the greatly enhanced role of the national energy regulatory authorities and the European Competition Network in enforcing law at the European level, as well as the various challenges that may be made to their decisions. The approach adopted in this edition is primarily analytical and practical, treating each problem that has arisen in application of the law and assessing the efficacy of the solution adopted. It examines the tensions that arise in the law as a result of conflicting policy objectives on environmental, internal market and security of supply concerns. The new edition draws on the insights of a high-level advisory panel of senior pracitioners, regulators and academics in the sector. The panel is made up of Professor Sir David Edward, formerly at the ECJ; Maria Rehbinder, the Head of Unit for Energy and Water at DG Competition, European Commission; David Newbery, economics professor at Cambridge University; and Michael Brothwood, solicitor and occasional advisor to the House of Lords Select Committee on Europe.

Internationalisation and Economic Institutions: Comparing the European Experience
This book examines when, how and why internationalisation affects national economic institutions. It confronts questions at the heart of debates in political economy and comparative politics: What does internationalisation of markets mean? Who are its carriers in domestic arenas? Through which mechanisms does it affect decisions about national institutional reform? What are institutional outcomes in the face of internationalisation? The book responds to its questions by looking at key economic institutions in five strategic sectors: securities trading, telecommunications, electricity, airlines and postal services. It compares across four countries that represent different 'varieties of capitalism', namely Britain, France, Germany and Italy, over the period between 1965 and 2005. Thus it combines cross-national, historical and cross-sectoral comparisons. The author distinguishes technological and economic forms of internationalisation from policy forms, notably decisions in powerful overseas nations and supranational regulation. He argues that, contrary to expectations, the first was met with institutional inertia.In contrast, policy forms of internationalisation, namely reforms in the US and European Union regulation, played significant roles in undermining long-standing national institutions. The book explores the mechanisms whereby policy forms of internationalisation were influential by looking at the strategies, coalitions and resources of key actors in national arenas. It also shows that institutional outcomes were surprising: all four countries, albeit through different routes, adopted increasingly similar reforms of economic institutions- privatisation, the ending of monopolies and delegation to independent regulatory agencies. The book rejects the view that technological and economic forms of internationalisation drive institutional change. It suggests that policy forms of internationalisation are more important because they become part of domestic decision making and aid the reform of well-established national institutions.

Banana Split, How EU Policies Divide Global Producers: Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series. 31
This publication looks at the likely impact of the change of arrangements for the import of bananas into the EU. At present banana prices within the European Union are almost double world levels. These prices are maintained by restrictive import quotas and tariffs that generate rents that accrue to producers and distributors. The European Union is obliged to remove its quantitative restrictions and replace them with tariffs that are likely to give preference to existing quota holders from ACP countries. Indications are that a relatively small proportion of the rents are currently accruing to ACP producers and the loss in rent would be more than offset by the expansion of EU imports.

Implications of the EU Banana Trade Regime for Selected Import Markets: Economic Analysis and Political Dimension
This work focuses on the German and French banana markets, the two largest single importers of bananas in the EU, characterized by opposed pre-COMB banana regimes. In addition, the US banana market, the single largest banana importer worldwide, characterized by a free trade policy, is also analyzed.

Banana Wars: The Price of Free Trade - A Caribbean Perspective
In the Caribbean Windward Islands, one in three jobs and half of export earnings depend on bananas. But from the end of 2005, the European Union will give up the last non-tariff measures designed to protect this trade. Looming over the islanders are unemployment, poverty, further emigration, and the almost inevitable switch to growing illegal drugs. Banana Wars tells how the US government, answering the grievances of a single American corporation, forced the World Trade Organization to nullify a European Community commitment to protect small Caribbean banana growers. The international trading system lacks the flexibility needed to give states like the Windward Islands the protection that they need to survive, while powerful supermarket chains insist on ever-lower prices, to the short-term benefit of consumers but the serious detriment of growers. This book calls for new EU arrangements to help the Caribbean banana industry beyond 2005 and for the WTO to give greater consideration to the needs of very small states with vulnerable economies.

European Regulation of Consumer Product Safety
This book examines the European Community legislation that regulates the safety of consumer products. Hodges surveys the extent to which this legislation aims to and succeeds in achieving safety for a wide range of products. There are different legal requirements for medicines, machines, electronics, toys and so on, which employ different regulatory mechanisms, including pre-marketing assessment, provision of information, control of the manufacturing environment, post-marketing obligations on producers and authorities, and obligations on distributors and users. Hodges compares the various mechanisms relating to medicinal products, products covered by 'New Approach' Directives, cosmetics, biocides, tobacco products, and consumer products covered by the General Product Safety Directive, and asks why particular mechanisms are used, or not used for different products. The book then moves on to consider what is meant by product 'safety', demonstrating the relativity of this concept. Hodges highlights an important problem: that consumers, the media, and experts can all have differing ideas on the level of safety that is relevant and acceptable. Hodges contends that the systems are in need of review, to ensure they work effectively and give value for money. In some cases, there is an need for more or less control. He argues for more systematic collection of safety data, and for consistecy in surveillance and enforcement mechanisms across Europe, pointing towards the need for a European Product Safety Agency.

Consumer Law and Policy: Text and Materials on Regulating Consumer Markets
Consumer law and policy has developed significantly since the first edition of this book. This fully revised edition takes into account these developments while maintaining much of the structure of the earlier edition. This edition includes material on the effects of globalization, and the many European initiatives, on UK consumer law, as well as documenting changes in the theory and practice of regulation of consumer markets. It incorporates recent legislative and judicial developments of the law, blending substantial extracts from primary legal materials such as case law, policy documents, and legislative materials, with a policy framework that includes references to comparative approaches. It includes a case study of the regulation of unfair terms in consumer contract by the Office of Fair Trading, increased coverage of the linkages between consumer and competition policies, and the role of consumer law and policy in electronic commerce. There is expanded analysis of the law and regulation of markets for consumer services.

European Fair Trading Law: The Unfair Commercial Practices Directive (Markets and the Law)
The Unfair Commercial Practices Directive is the most important directive in the field of trade practices to have emerged from the EC, but it builds upon European activity which has sought to regulate trade practices on both a sectoral and horizontal level. It is an umbrella provision, which uses general clauses to protect consumers. How effective this approach is and how it relates the existing acquis are fundamental issues for debate. This work provides a critical appraisal of the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive linking discussion of it to general debates about how fair trading should be regulated. It explains how the Directive fits into the existing acquis. It also examines national traditions where these are necessary to explain the European approach, as in the case of general clauses. The book will be a valuable tool for any student of consumer law seeking to understand the thinking behind the directive and how it will affect national laws. It will also influence policy makers by suggesting how the directive should be interpreted and what policy lies behind its formulation. Businesses and their advisers will use the book as a means of understanding the new regulatory climate post-the directive.

The Price of Gender Equality: Members States and Governance in the European Union (Gender in a Global/Local World): Members States and Governance in the European Union (Gender in a Global/local World)
This book presents a thorough and well-documented theoretically guided empirical analysis of gender equality policies in the European Union (EU). Inspite of a wealth of research, many questions remain unanswered. To deal with these, a theoretical framework is required which is able to explain the changing fortunes of women's activism, the changing attitudes of European institutions and the behaviour of member states in a multi-level setting.

Legal Responses to Trafficking in Women for Sexual Exploitation in the European Union (Modern Studies in European Law)
The phenomenon of trafficking in women for sexual exploitation, which in the last decade has changed from a marginal 'non-issue' to a legitimate concern in many parts of the world, has become familiar through newspaper coverage, and now, finally, legislators and law enforcement agencies have begun to act. In Europe many EU Member States now have (or are developing) at least some sort of anti-trafficking policies (with some of them in the forefront of global anti-trafficking efforts). Moreover, the EU itself has become markedly more active with regard to curbing trafficking in human beings, as part of its migration control and police and judicial co-operation functions under the current Third Pillar. However even co-ordinated efforts such as those being worked on by the EU tend to produce only short-term 'cures' to a problem that is in truth global and structural in nature and which cannot be eradicated - or necessarily even significantly reduced - through policing and migration control measures alone. Too often there is little debate on broader measures which might be targeted to address the 'root causes' of trafficking, such as poverty, under-development, general lack of economic and migration opportunities and, above all, gender inequality. Against this background, this book deals with present efforts to control trafficking in women for sexual exploitation. In doing so it examines claims that what is needed to effectively prevent and tackle trafficking is a 'comprehensive' approach, and at the very least one that is far more wide-ranging and coherent than what exists today and also questions the assertion that destination countries, and more specifically Member States of the EU, could and perhaps should, take more action against trafficking through regional co-operation, particularly in the framework of the EU, rather than as individual Member States. The book will be of interest to a wide range of scholars in EU law, human rights, comparative law, sociology, feminist theory and politics, as well as policy-makers, practitioners and NGO activists in various European countries.

Women, Universities, and Change: Gender Equality in the European Union and the United States (Issues in Higher Education): Gender Equality in the European ... United States (Issues in Higher Education)
This book analyzes how higher education responses to socio political and economic influences affect gender equality at the nation-state and university levels in the European Union and the United States.

Britain in the European Union Today (Politics Today)
Duncan Watts, the author of three previous books on the European Union and Britain's relationship with it, has produced a new account of this 'uneasy partnership'. This edition is based on the original by Colin Pilkington and provides a review of how European Unity has been handled by British governments and politics. The contents has been updated to include all new developments including the proposed new consititution and the euro-elections of 2004. Additional material also considers the role of pressure groups within the Union and the approach adopted by British Lobbyists. As an up-to-date edition of a well established text, this book will be essential reading for students and teachers interested in the relationship between Britain and Europe.

Democratic Politics in the European Parliament (Themes in European Governance)
With the European Parliament comprising politicians from many different countries, cultures, languages, national parties and institutional backgrounds, one might expect politics in the Parliament to be highly-fragmented and unpredictable. By studying more than 12,000 recorded votes between 1979 and 2004 this book establishes that the opposite is in fact true: transnational parties in the European Parliament are highly cohesive and the classic 'left-right' dimension dominates voting behaviour. Furthermore, the cohesion of parties in the European Parliament has increased as the powers of the Parliament have increased. The authors suggest that the main reason for these developments is that like-minded MEPs have incentives to form stable transnational party organizations and to use these organizations to compete over European Union policies. They suggest that this is a positive development for the future of democratic accountability in the European Union.

National Parliaments and European Democracy: A Bottom-up Approach to European Constitutionalism
National Parliaments and European Democracy: A Bottom-up Approach to European Constitutionalism (Hardcover)

The European Union and Developing Countries: Trade, Aid and Growth in an Integrating World
The EU is the main trading partner of developing countries, and the main provider of development aid. The contributors to this book evaluate critical aspects of EU trade and aid policies in order to ascertain whether, and to what extent, they help promote growth and accelerate the development of the Third World. The evaluation takes into account current changes in EU trade and aid policy and makes use of recent advances in empirical methods in order to provide accurate estimates of the policy impact on developing countries. The various studies may contribute to improve the design and implementation of EU policy and its effectiveness in strengthening growth of developing countries and promoting the well-being of their populations. This independent evaluation of EU trade and development policy towards developing countries will strongly appeal to: undergraduate and graduate students in international economics, development economics and European economics; policy makers in the EU and developing countries, development community; non governmental organizations; and those interested in the impact of the EU trade and aid policy.

Hunger and Health (World Hunger Series 2007)
"Hunger and Health" explores the multiple relationships between hunger and poor health, and how they affect the growth of individuals, physiologically and psychologically, constraining the development of nations both socially and economically.

Nuclear Sphinx of Tehran: Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and the State of Iran
Explains how the President of Iran and Iran's fundamentalist leaders, backed by messianic visionaries, are methodically developing nuclear weapons and building a worldwide network of terrorists.

Iran's Nuclear Ambitions
Provides a look into the motivations, perceptions, and domestic politics swirling around Iran. This book details the history of Iran's nuclear program and diplomacy.

The Apocalypse of Ahmadinejad: The Revelation of Iran's Nuclear Prophet
The Apocalypse of Ahmadinejad: The Revelation of Iran's Nuclear Prophet (Paperback).

Iran's Nuclear Program: Realities and Repercussions
What are Iran's nuclear ambitions? How will these ambitions affect regional and global security? International suspicion surrounding Iran's nuclear activities was first aroused in the late 1980s, but it was not until the International Atomic Energy agency (IAEA) launched an investigation into the Iranian nuclear program, that it was revealed Iran had enriched uranium and separated plutonium in undeclared facilities in the absence of IAEA safeguards. Iran's failure to acknowledge limitations on nuclear fuel cycle activities, despite both offers of assistance and the threat of sanctions, has alarmed the international community. "Iran's Nuclear Program" analyses the most important issues surrounding Iran's nuclear capability and its potential to develop atomic weapons; the changes and developments in Iran's nuclear program since the 2005 Iranian presidential elections; Israeli foreign policy in relation to Iran; the possible impact of an Iranian nuclear program on the security of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC); and the prospect of military action against Iran. This is essential reading for anyone wanting to understand Iran's atomic development, a threat that has the ability to destabilize the Gulf and the broader Middle East region.

Private and Public Enterprise in Europe: Energy, Telecommunications and Transport, 1830-1990 (Cambridge Studies in Economic History - Second Series)
The first comparative history of the economic organisation of energy, telecommunications and transport in Europe in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It examines the role that private and public enterprise have played in the construction and operation of the railways, electricity, gas and water supply, tramways, coal, oil and natural gas industries, telegraph, telephone, computer networks and other modern telecommunications. The book begins with the arrival of the railways in the 1830s, charts the development of arms' length regulation, municipalisation and nationalisation, and ends on the eve of privatisation in the 1980s. Robert Millward argues that the role of ideology, especially in the form of debates about socialism and capitalism, has been exaggerated. Instead the driving forces in changes in economic organisation were economic and technological factors and the book traces their influence in shaping the pattern of regulation and ownership of these key sectors of modern economies.

Climate Change and Power: Economic Instruments for European Electricity (Energy & Environmental Programme)
The electricity industry is one of the main contributors of carbon to the atmosphere. Reducing these emissions is critical to achieving international targets and mitigating climate change. Economic instruments, including emissions trading, taxes and voluntary agreements will be crucial, but across Europe there are widely different electricity systems, and policies will have different effects. This book describes the characteristics of the main European electricity regimes, defines the range of instruments available and assesses the potential of each in each regime and for Europe as a whole.

The EU-Russian Energy Dialogue: Europe's Future Energy Security (International Political Economy of New Regionalisms Series)
EU-Russian energy dialogue represents a policy issue that forces us to take a serious look at several crucial questions related to the present and future of Europe such as: how can the EU area ensure its future energy security when it is running out of its own energy resources and at the same time incorporating new members who are also dependent on energy imports? This book not only outlines the overall characteristics of the energy dialogue, but also illustrates the involved policy implementation challenges by paying special attention to the regional context of northern Europe.Due to the many crucial policy issues, this study contributes to diverse fields such as international relations and political science, European studies, studies on energy politics, the international political economy, post-Soviet politics, and literature on regionalisation and regionalisms, with a special reference on northern Europe.

Biotech Patents: Equivalency and Exclusions Under European and U.S. Patent Law
An academic work, this volume examines patent and intellectual property laws with reference to the biotechnical industries in both Europe and the United States.

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Libcast’s Online Video Platform in the limelight at BETT 2015
Libcast of France will be showcasing its Online Video Platform at BETT 2015 in London, in January. The specialist company’s innovative and versatile solution enables users to host, manage and broadcast lectures live or in streaming mode. With 200,000 users, Libcast’s technology has already been chosen by many universities and schools, including leading colleges in France and Norway.

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