Skip to content. | Skip to navigation

Personal tools
Sections
You are here: Home Breaking news Britain's troubled relations with the EU

Britain's troubled relations with the EU

23 January 2013, 18:55 CET
— filed under: , ,
Share

(LONDON) - Following is a chronology of Britain's uneasy relationship with the European Union, after Prime Minister David Cameron announced on Tuesday his intention to hold an in-or-out referendum by the end of 2017:

- July 1961: Britain decides to apply to join the fledgling Common Market, the European Economic Community.

- January 1963: French president Charles de Gaulle vetoes the application.

- May 1967: Britain reapplies, only for De Gaulle to quash the attempt again.

- January 1973: Britain finally joins what has become the European Community.

- June 1975: Britons decide in a referendum to remain in the bloc.

- 1979: All members join the European Monetary System, except Britain. The pound enters temporarily from 1990 to 1992.

- 1984: Prime minister Margaret Thatcher wins a rebate from Europe's budget. Britain has fought off repeated efforts to end it.

- June 1990: Europe's Schengen Agreement, enabling border-free travel, is signed by five founding members of the bloc. Britain is allowed to avoid several provisions.

- February 1992: The Treaty of Maastricht, transforming the EC into the European Union (EU) and setting out the path towards monetary union, is signed. Britain negotiates opt-outs.

- September 16: Britain pulls out of the EU's Exchange Rate Mechanism after massive rises in interest rates fail to stem a run on the pound.

"Black Wednesday" and its impact on the economy cause wide public antipathy in Britain towards monetary integration.

- 1994/5: The EU agrees to launch a single currency, called the euro, in January 1999.

- October 1997: Finance minister Gordon Brown from premier Tony Blair's new EU-friendly Labour government, announces five tests Britain must pass before it could join the euro.

- December 1998: Britain and France lay down the basis of a defence role for the EU, jointly calling for the bloc to have a military capability.

- January 1, 1999: The euro is launched. Britain is not among the countries adopting the currency.

- December 2011: Under Cameron, Britain vetoes a planned fiscal discipline treaty to resolve the eurozone debt crisis, provoking the ire of its EU partners.

- January 23, 2013: Cameron announces plans to renegotiate the terms of Britain's EU membership and then put the terms to a referendum by the end of 2017.


Advertisement

Text and Picture Copyright 2013 AFP. All other Copyright 2013 EUbusiness Ltd. All rights reserved. This material is intended solely for personal use. Any other reproduction, publication or redistribution of this material without the written agreement of the copyright owner is strictly forbidden and any breach of copyright will be considered actionable.


Document Actions